How does a girl get aids
Several factors can increase the risk of HIV in women. For example, during vaginal or anal sex, a woman has a greater risk for getting HIV because, in general, receptive sex is riskier than insertive sex. HIV is spread through the blood, pre-seminal fluids, semen, vaginal fluids, rectal fluids, or breast milk of a person who has HIV. Age-related thinning and dryness of the vagina may also increase the risk of HIV in older women. A woman's risk of HIV can also increase if her partner engages in high-risk behaviors, such as injection drug use or having sex with other partners without using condoms. However, birth control and pregnancy are two issues that can affect HIV treatment in women.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: HIV - How Do You Get HIV? - amerikancilar.com
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HIV and Specific Populations
When considering the issue of female-to-female sexual transmission it is important to draw a distinction between the risk of transmission by this route and diagnoses of HIV infection in women who identify as lesbian. There have been only six reported cases of woman-to-woman sexual transmission, and these reports need to be viewed with the same caution as any other case reports of transmission through oral sex cunnilingus.
In the early years of the epidemic, investigations of the source of infection in US women failed to identify any cases of female-to-female transmission. For example, a follow-up of all women identified as HIV-positive through the blood donation services in the US interviewed women, and identified only three who had had sex with women.
All of these women had other risk factors: either injecting drug use or vaginal intercourse with men Chu. An Italian study of 18 HIV-discordant lesbian couples who had been monogamous partners for at least three months prior to recruitment and who were followed for six months found no seroconversions occurred during this period.
Three-quarters of the couples reported sharing sex toys and virtually all couples reported oral sex Raiteri. In a case report of female-to-female sexual HIV transmission was published. Doctors suggest the woman may have been infected through sharing sex toys after drug-resistance tests found striking similarities between the genotypes of the woman and her female HIV-positive partner Kwakwa.
The case concerns a year-old woman who presented with HIV infection having had a negative HIV test result six months earlier. The woman had been in a monogamous lesbian relationship for the past two years, and denied having had any other sexual partners, male or female. She had never injected drugs or received blood products, and had no tattoos or body piercings.
These activities did not occur during menstruation, but sex toys had occasionally been used vigorously enough to draw blood. Her bisexual partner was known to be HIV positive, and is believed to be the source of infection because of similarities observed when the two women underwent genotypic drug-resistance tests.
The year-old woman was infected with multidrug-resistant HIV. The investigators noted that this is the "first reported case of female-to-female sexual transmission of HIV supported by identification of similar HIV genotypes in the source patient and the recipient". In , a further case report was published , on this occasion supported by phylogenetic analysis, which showed that the genetic sequences of the viruses infecting the two women were highly related Chan. The report concerns a year-old woman who appears to have acquired HIV during a six-month monogamous HIV serodiscordant sexual relationship with a year-old woman.
She had had a negative antibody test a few weeks before seroconversion illness and diagnosis. Her female partner had been previously diagnosed with HIV but had dropped out of medical care and was not receiving antiretroviral therapy. The newly diagnosed woman had no other recent risk factors for HIV, such as heterosexual intercourse, injecting drug use, or more unusual modes of HIV transmission such as tattooing, acupuncture, transfusion or transplant.
Resistance can be the result of a poor adherence to treatment or of transmission of an already resistant virus.
Kissing, licking or sucking another person's genitals, i. An aspect of personal behaviour or lifestyle, an environmental exposure, or a personal characteristic that is thought to be associated with an infection or a medical condition.
The couple reported routinely having unprotected oral and vaginal contact and using insertive sex toys that were shared between them. They described their sexual contact as at times rough to the point of inducing bleeding and contact with menstrual blood. Chu SY et al. Update: epidemiology of reported cases of AIDS in women who report sex only with other women, United States — AIDS 6: —, Raiteri R et al.
No HIV—1 transmission through lesbian sex. Lancet , Kwakwa HA et al. Female-to-female transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Clinical Infectious Diseases E, You can read more about this study in our news report.
Chan SK et al. Likely female-to-female sexual transmission of HIV — Texas Sexual transmission. Primary tabs View active tab Preview. Roger Pebody. July Key points The risk of female-to-female sexual transmission is extremely rare, with only a handful of reported cases. HIV-positive women who identify as lesbian may have acquired HIV through injecting drug use or sex with men.
Transmission is possible through sharing of sex toys and exposure to blood during sex. The latest news and research on sexual transmission. Glossary oral Refers to the mouth, for example a medicine taken by mouth. Next review date. This page was last reviewed in July It is due for review in July Related topics. The biology of HIV transmission.
How Do People Get AIDS?
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Being in love, going steady, or even getting married does not automatically protect you from HIV. You can only get HIV from someone who is infected with HIV, and even then only if you are involved in risky activities that can spread the virus. But even people who have sex with only one person can get HIV. There is no risk of transmitting HIV between two people who are both uninfected. The problem is: How do you know?
HIV/AIDS in Women
Vaginal sex intercourse involves inserting the penis into the vagina. Some sexual activities are riskier than others for getting or transmitting HIV. Activities like oral sex, touching, and kissing carry little to no risk for getting or transmitting HIV. In addition to HIV, a person can get other sexually transmitted diseases STDs like chlamydia and gonorrhea from vaginal sex if condoms are not used correctly. Even if a condom is used, some STDs can still be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact like syphilis or herpes. Hepatitis A and B can also be transmitted through vaginal sex. If one has never had hepatitis A or B, there are vaccines to prevent them. A health care provider can make recommendations about vaccines. Condoms are much less effective when not used consistently. It is also important that sufficient water- or silicone-based lubricant be used during vaginal sex to prevent condom breakage and tearing of tissue.
What every girl needs to know about HIV and AIDS
Throughout the world, HIV is most often spread through sex. This is because the fragile tissues of the vagina can tear slightly during sex and let the virus enter the body. This is especially likely among girls under age The vagina also has a large surface area that can be exposed to the virus, thus increasing risk of infection.
Colleague's E-mail is Invalid. Your message has been successfully sent to your colleague. Save my selection. Compared to circumcised men, uncircumcised men are more than twice as likely to acquire HIV-1 each time they have unprotected sex with an infected woman, according to a team of researchers in the US and Kenya.
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Visit coronavirus. You can only get HIV by coming into direct contact with certain body fluids from a person with HIV who has a detectable viral load. These fluids are:.
All A-Z health topics. View all pages in this section. Abstinence, or not having any type of sex, is the best way to avoid HIV. Here is some great information for girls:. HIV can only be transmitted through the body's fluids, like blood, semen, or vaginal fluids.
What Is the Risk of HIV From Vaginal Sex?
Какой у нас выбор? - спросила Сьюзан. Она хорошо понимала, что в отчаянной ситуации требуются отчаянные меры, в том числе и от АНБ. - Мы не можем его устранить, если ты это имела в виду. Именно это она и хотела узнать. За годы работы в АНБ до нее доходили слухи о неофициальных связях агентства с самыми искусными киллерами в мире - наемниками, выполняющими за разведывательные службы всю грязную работу. - Танкадо слишком умен, чтобы предоставить нам такую возможность, - возразил Стратмор.
Сьюзан испытала от этих слов странное облегчение. - У него есть охрана.
Сьюзан, - сказал он, - только что позвонил Дэвид. Он задерживается. ГЛАВА 16 - Кольцо? - не веря своим ушам, переспросила Сьюзан.
How Is HIV Transmitted?
Молчание. - Мидж. Ты меня слышишь.
Vaginal Sex and HIV Risk
Джабба взглянул на часы. - Странное? - Он начал беспокоиться. - Можешь выражаться яснее.
Конечно, он должен был проверить все показатели, но единственная цифра, которая по-настоящему всегда интересовала директора, - это СЦР, средняя цена одной расшифровки.
Потом он подумал о вирусе, попавшем в ТРАНСТЕКСТ, о Дэвиде Беккере в Испании, о своих планах пристроить черный ход к Цифровой крепости. Он так много лгал, он так виноват. Стратмор знал, что это единственный способ избежать ответственности… единственный способ избежать позора. Он закрыл глаза и нажал на спусковой крючок.
Сьюзан услышала глухой хлопок, когда уже спустилась на несколько пролетов .
Сьюзан подумала о Стратморе, о том, как мужественно он переносит тяжесть этого испытания, делая все необходимое, сохраняя спокойствие во время крушения.
Иногда она видела в нем что-то от Дэвида. У них было много общего: настойчивость, увлеченность своим делом, ум. Иногда ей казалось, что Стратмор без нее пропадет; ее любовь к криптографии помогала коммандеру отвлечься от завихрений политики, напоминая о молодости, отданной взламыванию шифров. Но и она тоже многим была обязана Стратмору: он стал ее защитником в мире рвущихся к власти мужчин, помогал ей делать карьеру, оберегал ее и, как сам часто шутил, делал ее сны явью.
Хотя и ненамеренно, именно Стратмор привел Дэвида Беккера в АНБ в тот памятный день, позвонив ему по телефону. Мысли Сьюзан перенеслись в прошлое, и глаза ее непроизвольно упали на листок бумаги возле клавиатуры с напечатанным на нем шутливым стишком, полученным по факсу: МНЕ ЯВНО НЕ ХВАТАЕТ ЛОСКА, ЗАТО МОЯ ЛЮБОВЬ БЕЗ ВОСКА.
Неужели ему предстояло погибнуть по той же причине. Человек неумолимо приближался по крутой дорожке. Вокруг Беккера не было ничего, кроме стен.