Find man exclude
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Exclude a directory or multiple directories while using find command
Here we exclude dir1 , dir2 and dir3 , since in find expressions it is an action that acts on the criteria -path dir1 -o -path dir2 -o -path dir3 if dir1 or dir2 or dir3 , ANDed with type -d. Important Note: the paths you type after -path must exactly match what find would print without the exclusion.
See note  if you'd like a better understanding. This is then grouped as a single expression with the escaped parenthesis, and prefixed with -not which will make find skip anything that was matched by that expression. One might ask if adding -not will not make all other files hidden by -prune reappear, and the answer is no. The way -prune works is that anything that, once it is reached, the files below that directory are permanently ignored.
This comes from an actual use case, where I needed to call yui-compressor on some files generated by wintersmith, but leave out other files that need to be sent as-is.
There is clearly some confusion here as to what the preferred syntax for skipping a directory should be. From the GNU find man page. Just specifying -not -path will still descend into the skipped directory, but -not -path will be false whenever find tests each file. Results are below. Both f10bit's syntax and Daniel C. Sobral's syntax took ms to run on average. GetFree's syntax , which doesn't use -prune , took ms.
So, yes this is a rather extreme example, but if you care about run time and are doing anything remotely intensive you should use -prune. Note Daniel C. Sobral's syntax performed the better of the two -prune syntaxes; but, I strongly suspect this is the result of some caching as switching the order in which the two ran resulted in the opposite result, while the non-prune version was always slowest.
One option would be to exclude all results that contain the directory name with grep. For example:. The '-type d -name proc -prune' only look for directories named proc to exclude. The '-o' is an 'OR' operator. The tricky part is that find is very particular about the order of the arguments, so if you don't get them just right, your command may not work. The order of arguments is generally as such:.
The -path -prune approach also works with wildcards in the path. Here is a find statement that will find the directories for a git server serving multiple git repositiories leaving out the git internal directories:.
But maybe you should use a regular expression , if there are many directories to exclude. There are plenty of good answers, it just took me some time to understand what each element of the command was for and the logic behind it. Any directory or file that is not the. But they will be tested against the second expression. When find reaches the. So the -prune option will be applied to it.
It tells the find command to not explore that directory. So any file or directory in. For example, But it will also print the print the full path of each directory one is skipping, as noted above. However, the following does not, This binds it to the right part of the -or clause due to boolean order of operations and associativity.
But the docs say there's a hidden -print if it or any of its cousins So why isn't the left part of the -or printing? Apparently and I didn't understand this from my first reading the man page , that is true if there there is no -print -or -exec ANYWHERE, in which case, -print is logically sprinkled around such that everything gets printed.
If even ONE print -style operation is expressed in any clause, all those hidden logical ones go away and you get only what you specify. Now frankly, I might have preferred it the other way around, but then a find with only descriptive operators would apparently do nothing, so I guess it makes sense as it is. As mentioned above, this all works with -exec as well, so the following gives a full ls -la listing for each file with the desired extension, but not listing the first level of each hidden directory, For me and others on this thread , find syntax gets pretty baroque pretty quickly, so I always throw in parens to make SURE I know what binds to what, so I usually create a macro for type-ability and form all such statements as It's hard to go wrong by setting up the world into two parts this way.
You can find detailed instructions and examples in Linux find command exclude directories from searching. To effectively use the find I believe that it is imperative to have a good understanding of your file system directory structure.
On my home computer I have multi-TB hard drives, with about half of that content backed up using rsnapshot i. Among the approached variously suggested in this thread How to exclude a directory in find.
Let's say I want to find the system file libname-server The other solution offered in this thread SO also performs poorly:.
Here, I want to exclude a nested directory, e. Aside: Adding -print at the end of the command suppresses the printout of the excluded directory:. I was using find to provide a list of files for xgettext , and wanted to omit a specific directory and its contents.
I tried many permutations of -path combined with -prune but was unable to fully exclude the directory which I wanted gone. Although I was able to ignore the contents of the directory which I wanted ignored, find then returned the directory itself as one of the results, which caused xgettext to crash as a result doesn't accept directories; only files.
My solution was to simply use grep -v to skip the directory that I didn't want in the results:. Using grep was a quick and easy solution after some headache. I have found this here. For those of you on older versions of UNIX who cannot use -path or -not. For what I needed it worked like this, finding landscape. The exec I tried command above, but none of those using "-prune" works for me. Eventually I tried this out with command below:.
Example for not working use case with above notation:. So if you need to find files without any pattern matching use the -prune. Also, by the use of prune find is always faster while it really skips that directories instead of matching it or better not matching it. So in that case use something like:. Show the love and vote here. Learn more. How to exclude a directory in find. Asked 9 years, 5 months ago. Active 2 months ago. Viewed k times.
Here is the find code we're using. What's the directory you need to exclude? It's better to use find Also, it's better to accept and upvote answers. Nov 17 '10 at Names with spaces are split, which we don't want. Active Oldest Votes.
Further action is -o print , just print. Peter Cordes k 29 29 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. This doesn't work for me either as it will include the ignored directory ". Theuni It probably didn't work for you because you didn't add a -print or any other action explicitly after -name. In that case, both "sides" of -o end up printing, whereas if you use -print , only that side prints.
Sobral May 16 '13 at From manpage: Because -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete together. So, how do I go about deleting with find if I want to exclude specific directories from the deletion? To remove the entire directory itself from the results use: find. This question and the confusion in the answers is a manifest on how badly the find user interface matches onto what people need.
Mateen Ulhaq GetFree GetFree One of the comments in the accepted answer points out the problem.
Shell Programming and Scripting
The Select-String cmdlet searches for text and text patterns in input strings and files. Select-String is based on lines of text. By default, Select-String finds the first match in each line and, for each match, it displays the file name, line number, and all text in the line containing the match. You can direct Select-String to find multiple matches per line, display text before and after the match, or display a Boolean value True or False that indicates whether a match is found. Select-String uses regular expression matching, but it can also perform a match that searches the input for the text that you specify.
Cleans the working tree by recursively removing files that are not under version control, starting from the current directory. Normally, only files unknown to Git are removed, but if the -x option is specified, ignored files are also removed. This can, for example, be useful to remove all build products. Specify -d to have it recurse into such directories as well.
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Did you find this page useful? Do you have a suggestion? Give us feedback or send us a pull request on GitHub. See the User Guide for help getting started. This section explains prominent concepts and notations in the set of high-level S3 commands provided. Whenever using a command, at least one path argument must be specified. There are two types of path arguments: LocalPath and S3Uri.
25 simple examples of Linux find command
In Unix-like and some other operating systems , find is a command-line utility that locates files based on some user -specified criteria and then applies some requested action on each matched object. It initiates a search from a desired starting location and then recursively traversing the nodes directories of a hierarchical structure typically a tree. The possible search criteria include a pattern to match against the filename or a time range to match against the modification time or access time of the file. By default, find returns a list of all files below the current working directory , although users can limit the search to any desired maximum number of levels under the starting directory.
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find(1) - Linux man page
I haven't come across such informational elsewhere. Great work. Thursday, July 19, find command: 15 examples to exclude directories using prune. The simple find command below lists all the files and directories in the directory tree. We will see the usage of prune using this directory tree:. The find command works like this: It starts finding files from the path provided in the command which in this case is the current directory. From here, it traverses through all the files in the entire tree and prints those files matching the criteria specified. Hence, when find starts with the current directory, prune does not allow it to descend the current directory since it itself is a directory, and hence only the current directory gets printed, not the files within the directory.
The Linux find command is a very useful and handy command to search for files from the command line. In this post we shall learn to use the find command along with various options that it supports. The find command is available on most linux distros by default so you do not have to install any package. The find command is an essential one to learn, if you want to get super productive with the command line on linux.
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Беккер знал, что он выиграл.
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